Any observable or measurable negative effect in treated or exposed animal(s) that is (or is suspected to be) associated with the administration/application of a veterinary medicine or oral nutritional compound. In other words, any negative physiological or pharmacological side effect, target animal safety issue, residue issue, lack of efficacy or alleged interactions with other products or compounds should be considered an adverse event. This includes all unfavourable and unintended events (that may or may not have been identified as possible when the product was registered) that are associated with the use of the product in an on-label or off-label manner. (Ministry for Primary Industries: Adverse Event Reporting Programme for Veterinary Medicines).
To publicise to the community or to any section of the community using any words whether written, printed, spoken, or in any electronic form, or of any pictorial representation or design or device used to promote the sale of any agricultural compound. Advertising does not include general information transfer about animal health, animal welfare, or food safety status or management.
A medicine that kills bacteria or inhibits their growth. It includes natural substances such as penicillin, semisynthetic substances such as ampicillin, and totally synthetic substances such has enrofloxacin.
A drug, chemical, or other substance that either kills or slows the growth of microbes. Substances considered antimicrobials include surface disinfectants, antibiotics, parasiticides, and anti-fungal and anti-viral agents.
To physically assess the animal(s) and as a minimum provide relief from unreasonable or unnecessary pain or distress.
Authorising means a veterinarian creating a documented approval allowing a client to purchase a particular restricted veterinary medicine to administer to a particular animal(s) in accordance with the instructions of the veterinarian.
Dispensing means preparing a veterinary medicine to transfer possession to the owner or caretaker of the animal(s) to be treated. Dispensing includes transferring one or more doses of a veterinary medicine from its approved commercial packaging into adequate and appropriately labelled alternative packaging. Recommending means a veterinarian advising a client to use a particular veterinary medicine.
Selling means a veterinarian offering for sale a veterinary medicine, including gifting or offering samples.
Using means a veterinarian, and any clinic staff under their instruction, administering a veterinary medicine to any animal in their care.
The action of providing a written assurance or notification to any person about any animal or animal product. (In this context 'written' includes using electronic means).
A person (or organisation) that uses or has used the professional services of a veterinarian.
The professional examination, diagnosis, prophylactic, medical and/or surgical services veterinarians provide.
A record documenting a clinical examination or client discussion, which should include the date of examination/discussion, name of animal examined, history, clinical signs, diagnosis/provisional diagnosis, treatments and advice given, and medication or tests undertaken. The date of the medication authorised and any tests undertaken should be included. The record should include the signalment (a description) of the animal(s). It should be completed and maintained in accordance with the professional standards and practices as outlined in this Code.
The application of knowledge, skills, attitudes, communication and judgement to the delivery of appropriate veterinary services in any particular field of veterinary practice. Competence is demonstrated through performing the tasks required to an acceptable standard and doing this on a consistent basis.
A preparation prepared by a veterinarian or by a person on behalf of a veterinarian for use or sale as a veterinary medicine without regulatory assessment or approval.
A preparation of one or more ingredients prepared by a veterinarian (or by a person who is not a veterinarian but is under contract to and under the instruction of the veterinarian) for use on animal(s) as a veterinary medicine. This definition highlights (and is limited to) the generic actions of mixing of ingredients and using it on animals as a veterinary medicine.
A veterinarian who prepares a CVP; or under whose instruction a CVP is prepared.
Any substance, preparation, mixture, or article specified or described in Schedule 1, Schedule 2, or Schedule 3 of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975.
Antibiotics that are considered critically important to human health and animal health as identified by the World Organisation for Animal Health and the World Health Organization. For this Code, Critically Important Antibiotics include Quinolones, 3rd and 4th generation Cephalosporins and Macrolides.
A veterinary medicine that is not registered but still subject to regulatory controls under the ACVM Regulations. An example of an exempt veterinary medicine is a dog shampoo.
Represents the first-choice treatment where the treatment decision is based on judgement and experience of the veterinarian in the absence of a confirmed diagnosis.
The predominant veterinarian who a client chooses to provide the continuing and comprehensive primary veterinary care requirements for an animal or group of animals.
A substance that is offered for sale without any veterinary medicine claims being made by the manufacturer, proprietor or seller. A substance is no longer a ‘generic chemical’ and becomes a veterinary medicine once an agricultural compound use is assigned to it (that is, for treatment on animals).Ill treatment of an animal means causing an animal to suffer pain or distress which is unreasonable or unnecessary.
Taking place without delay.
Gifts or rewards offered to individual veterinarians or their staff which provide a significant personal benefit and therefore have the potential to influence treatment decisions (including the choice of restricted veterinary medicine) or incentivise sales. Examples might include but are not limited to cash, attendance at entertainment or sporting events, travel, hospitality, loans, personal items and consumables.
A complete list of all RVM products and Prescription Medicines held for sale or use by a veterinary practice. Medicine is any substance administered to a human for therapeutic purposes; also see the definition in Section 3 of the Medicines Act 1981.
Ministry for Primary Industries.
New Zealand Veterinary Association.
Using a registered veterinary medicine (over the counter or restricted) product for a purpose not covered in the label instructions approved by the Ministry for Primary Industries (including dose rate, route of administration, and species).
The duration of the validity of the veterinary authorisation for a restricted veterinary medicine.
Any aspect of veterinary endeavour. The practice of veterinary science includes:
- signing any certificate eg clinical and export certificates
- reporting or giving advice in a veterinary capacity using the knowledge, skills, attitudes and competence initially attained for the BVSc degree (or equivalent) and built upon through experience and/or post-graduate and continuing professional development. "Practice" goes wider in this context than clinical veterinary science to include regulatory and compliance functions, teaching, consultancy, advice and health and welfare management.
A written instruction that contains the required information set out in section 41 of the Medicines Regulations 1984, is signed and dated by a veterinarian, and which gives details for a pharmacy to dispense a prescription medicine.
A subset of those products identified as medicines that can only be sold under prescription. Veterinarians have an exemption under Section 27 of the Medicines Act that permits them to prescribe a PM to treat an animal under the care of that veterinarian, or under the care of another veterinarian.
The act of handing over a matter/clinical case to a person, who has particular skills, or who is a registered specialist in the appropriate discipline.
A trade name product registered under section 21 of the Agricultural Compounds and Veterinary Medicines Act 1997 that is subject to conditions of registration under section 23 that restrict sale, purchase and use, and require authorisation to purchase and use.
The use of electronic communication and information technologies to provide clinical healthcare remotely. It extends to providing veterinary services by video-link, text, instant messaging or telephone, or any other remote means.
A veterinary medicine registered for use as a veterinary medicine under the ACVM Act where it has been determined that its risk profile is such that direct veterinary authorisation and oversight of its use is not required. Colloquially known as an ‘over the counter’ (OTC) product.
A person who is registered with the Veterinary Council of New Zealand and who holds a current practising certificate.
An instruction from an authorising veterinarian, authorising the person specified in the authorisation to do one or more of the following:
- purchase an RVM by the person or persons specified in the authorisation
- hold an RVM in anticipation of its use by that person under the instructions of the authorising veterinarian detailed in either the authorisation or under a Veterinary Operating Instruction
- dispense an RVM by a veterinarian other than the authorising veterinarian, in accordance with the details of the authorisation, to the person or persons specified in the authorisation
- use an RVM in accordance with the instructions of the authorising veterinarian.
A veterinary authorisation may include:
- clinical case records noting that the veterinarian prescribed an RVM and dispensed the RVM from stocks held in their veterinary practice
- letters or other documents to another person or entity providing the authorisation to them to hold an RVM in anticipation of use (such as a letter to a feed company to hold RVMs for inclusion in medicated feeds as directed by the authorising veterinarian)
- prescriptions issued by the authorising veterinarian to address an urgent need for an RVM, to be dispensed by another veterinary practice or veterinary pharmacy service with the appropriate approval.
A veterinary authorisation is considered to be the same as veterinary ‘prescription’ or ‘authorisation’. If an authorising veterinarian writes a veterinary prescription (script), this is considered to be the same as issuing a veterinary authorisation to the person dispensing it.
A veterinary consultation must include the veterinarian:
- interviewing the client (or a legitimate and authorised representative of the client)
- collecting and recording sufficient information relevant to the individual circumstances to ensure the proposed course of action (including treatment) is appropriate to meet the needs and best interests of the animal(s) and the client
- obtaining appropriate consent to the proposed course of action
- being given, and accepting responsibility for, the ongoing health and welfare of the animal(s) concerned in relation to the consultation. This includes arranging emergency care after considering the circumstances and the potential for adverse effects from, or failure of, the agreed course of action
- determining and providing the appropriate level of advice and training so as to be satisfied that the agreed course of action can proceed as planned.
A veterinary consultation will usually involve the veterinarian seeing the animal(s) at the time of the consultation. If not, the animals must have been seen recently or often enough for the veterinarian to have sufficient personal knowledge of the condition/health status of the animal(s). This consultation is required in order for the veterinarian to be able to propose the particular course of action.
Veterinary Council of New Zealand.
Any sudden, unforeseen injury, illness or complication in an animal demanding immediate or early veterinary treatment to save life or to provide timely relief from unreasonable or unnecessary pain or distress.
A compound administered directly to or on animals for one or more of the purposes listed in the Agricultural Compounds and Veterinary Medicines Act 1997. Veterinary medicines include registered veterinary medicines, products that are exempted from registration, prescription (human) medicines when authorised by a veterinarian, and compounded veterinary preparations. Examples of registered veterinary medicines are restricted veterinary medicines such as antibiotics and unrestricted veterinary medicines such as drenches and wormers. An example of a product exempted from registration is dog shampoo.
A set of instructions from an authorising veterinarian to a non-veterinarian to hold restricted veterinary medicines (RVM) in anticipation of their use, and to use RVMs only in accordance with the authorising veterinarian's instructions in circumstances in which the authorising veterinarian will not be carrying out a case-specific consultation.